Oceans and Human Health: Implications for Society and Well-Being

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Human health risks emerge as depleted coastal ecosystems become vulnerable to invasive species, disease outbreaks and noxious algal blooms. Many of the economic activities along our coasts rely on diverse systems and the healthy waters they supply. The strength of the study is the consistent agreement of theory, experiments and observations across widely different scales and ecosystems. The study analyzed 32 controlled experiments, observational studies from 48 marine protected areas, and global catch data from the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization's FAO database of all fish and invertebrates worldwide from to The scientists also looked at a year time series for 12 coastal regions, drawing on data from archives, fishery records, sediment cores and archeological data.

The scientists note that a pressing question for management is whether losses can be reversed. If species have not been pushed too far down, recovery can be fast -- but there is also a point of no return as seen with species like northern Atlantic cod. But less than one percent of the global ocean is effectively protected right now.

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We won't see complete recovery in one year, but in many cases species come back more quickly than people anticipated -- in three to five to ten years. And where this has been done we see immediate economic benefits. The buffering impact of species diversity also generates long term insurance values that must be incorporated into future economic valuation and management decisions. The authors conclude that restoring marine biodiversity through an ecosystem based management approach -- including integrated fisheries management, pollution control, maintenance of essential habitats and creation of marine reserves -- is essential to avoid serious threats to global food security, coastal water quality and ecosystem stability.

Skip to main content. By Margaret Connors. Thursday, November 2, - Santa Barbara, CA. Categories Alumni. Nutrient loading associated with increased coastal runoff may trigger more frequent blooms of HA species in the oceans and in fresh waters [ 22 ].

One of the proposed strategies for mitigating the impact of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions, fertilization of large areas of the ocean with iron, could also stimulate HABs. Field studies of the impact of iron fertilization by researchers at the Hawaii OHH Center have indicated that pennate diatoms are the primary beneficiaries of iron fertilization; Pseudo-nitzschia , the genus containing a number of species associated with the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid and amnesiac shellfish poisoning, is particularly responsive [ 22 ].

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Synergistic and collaborative contributions to the ongoing work of the Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia and Human Health have played an important role in the success of the Working Group in producing the first comprehensive assessment of the status of OHH research and opportunities for advancement in this new field [ 17 ].

Hopefully, the current volume will provide a perspective on the current status in several areas, which may stimulate further efforts in this young and globally important endeavor and scientific discipline. Helfrich P: Fish poisoning in Hawaii. Hawaii Med J. Marine Technology Society Journal. Climate Change Environmental Health Perspectives.

An Ocean Blueprint for the 21 st Century.

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Environ Health. Oliver JD: Vibrio vulnificus. Oceans and Health:Pathogens in the Marine Environment.

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    Effects of global warming on human health - Wikipedia

    Microbial pathogens and OHH The primary concern regarding microbial pathogens is human exposure associated with the recreational and commercial use of coastal waters containing either indigenous or introduced pathogens. Global change and OHH In terms of human health effects worldwide, a very important yet poorly understood issue emerging in OHH is the potential impact of climate change on the ecology of pathogens and harmful algal species. References 1. Marine Pollution Bulletin 53 , , Marine pollution bulletin 53 , , Articles 1—20 Show more. Help Privacy Terms.

    Plastics in the Ocean Affecting Human Health

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